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Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation

The studies presented in this collection are related to the area of education in a very broad sense. They comprise experiments based on psychological, linguistic, and information science theories and models, which have been applied to both single individuals and samples.

One major research area concerns the effects of self-confrontation on information processing within the individual. The techniques used are CCTV and video-recording. The publications display classical treatments of measurement, highly developed and sophisticated statistical analysis and representation of the experimental outcomes. In a further step, an interactive behaviour simulator has been modelled and applied, where experimental subjects give suggestions for action based on conceived consequences. Both approaches are inquiring into the importance of self-assessment in the individual development of a behaviour strategy.

Another area concerns the way in which behavioural researchers perceive and cognise the research process, especially in the stage of problem formulation and information search. Several publications deal with problems of dissemination and search for scientific information and have resulted in the proposal of an intermediate language structure with the aim of processing highly abstracted information. With the understanding of how to build a machine that in an algorithmic way can respond to cognitive functions, the development of methods and models for computer-based discourse analyses has been experimentally tested.

The orientation towards the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) axiom implies a connection to current trends in the study of complex systems, non-linear dynamics and self-organisation, emphasizing “knowability”. The publications within this area reflect a focus on textual pattern dynamics as outcome of a subtle interplay between intention and orientation, for which the schema approach provides the proper foundation. It has been shown that the [AaO] units are embedding structurally a text producer’s point of observation (intention) as well as his point of view (orientation). The experience is that natural language must be treated as a system that contains its own coordinates. Text develops evolutionary and therefore it reflects the individual’s development and growth.

A number of studies have been concentrated on “text building behaviour” in natural settings. The hypothesis is that individual development is manifested in a writing style, which is conceived as expression of consciousness. Hence, consciousness may as well be studied in historical contexts, of which this collection gives examples. This research has shown that the angular articulation of some word models and their geometric description carry more ecological validity than can be reflected through classical approaches.

Bernhard Bierschenk

Inger Bierschenk


texts 245

Additional Collections

AaO system 14
structure 14
competence 13
self-confrontation 13
consciousness 11
experiment 11
computational linguistics 10
language space 10
cognition 9
content analysis 9
functional text geometry 9
language 9
perspective text analysis (PTA) 9
comprehension 8
free energy surfaces 8
schema 8
self-reference 8
simulation 8
teacher training 8
AaO paradigm 7
agent function 7
cluster 7
concept 7
energy landscapes 7
fiction 7
integration 7
magnitudes 7
writing style 7
AaO axiom 6
Kantian AaO-axiom 6
Sweden 6
control 6
flow dynamics 6
functional clause 6
fusion dynamics 6
model society 6
potential energy surfaces 6
psychometrics 6
self-assessment 6
string 6
AaO model 5
AaO-axiom 5
Anova 5
algorithmic coding 5
behaviour 5
behaviourism 5
function 5
graphical sentence 5
holophors 5
intention 5
intermediate language 5
interview data 5
linguistic models 5
longitudinal 5
morality 5
orientation 5
perspective borders 5
perspective differentiation 5
psycholinguistics 5
regression analysis 5
television 5
text 5
transformation 5
video-recording 5
visual cliff 5
General Linear Model (GLM) 4
Huxley 4
agent 4
behaviour simulation 4
civilization 4
closed circuit television 4
concept formation 4
dependency 4
discontinuity 4
ecology 4
educational experts 4
educational materials 4
empirical database 4
existence 4
geometry 4
grapheme 4
holophor 4
information 4
mentality 4
microteaching 4
perspective 4
perspective transformation 4
proposition 4
representation 4
scaling 4
scientific information 4
semantic differentials 4
teacher education 4
textual morphogenesis 4
training 4
videorecording 4
AaO mechanism 3
AaO-paradigm 3
CCTV-experiment 3
Italian 3
Manova 3
Osgood 3
Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) 3
Pär Lagerkvist 3
Swedish model 3
The Dwarf 3
assessment 3
association 3
bibliographic data 3
computer-based content analysis 3
computerbased lexicology 3
concepts 3
discriminant functions 3
distinction 3
documentation 3
duality 3
eigenvalue 3
functionalism 3
futurism 3
information flow 3
information science 3
interactive behaviour 3
knowability 3
language separation 3
learning strategy 3
linguistic model 3
literature 3
longitudinal study 3
multilingual database 3
multivariate analysis 3
name index 3
non-linear dynamics 3
pattern generation 3
perspective control 3
phase 3
regression 3
religion 3
representation language 3
research 3
self-indication 3
semantics 3
social science 3
space 3
sphere 3
strategy 3
structural concepts 3
structural stability 3
study 3
subject index 3
surface concepts 3
synthesis 3
system analysis 3
teacher 3
technical aid 3
text building 3
text concept 3
text depth 3
text processing 3
workers 3
AaO machine 2
AaO-model 2
Candide 2
Denmark 2
Europe 2
Functional text geometry 2
German 2
Gunnlaug Saga 2
Hemingway 2
I&D system 2
I&D-system 2
Kant 2
Kantian schema 2
Latin prose 2
Latin-square 2
Perspective Text Analysis 2
Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex) 2
Swedish 2
Vertex 2
Voltaire 2
action 2
analysis 2
angular articulation 2
angular displacement 2
authenticity 2
behaviour change 2
behaviour theories 2
behavioural referents 2
bibliometrics 2
categorical judgement 2
citizenship 2
classification 2
closed circuit televison 2
cluster analysis 2
coder agreement 2
coding 2
Date Published
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,...
Topics: duality, mentality, holophor, language space, perspective transformation, fiction, The Dwarf, Pär...
Modern behavioural research focuses on the possibility of a direct measurement of value preferences. These are conceived as important casual variables of behaviour. The article presents a method and a procedure for the measurement and representation of human value factors. By means of Perspective Text Analysis mental processes of workers from Sweden, England, West Germany, Italy and the United States were captured and topographically represented elsewhere. In this study, the mental processes...
Topics: axiology, Perspective Text Analysis, value types, Hartman, reference order, multinational company,...
This report presents and motivates the theoretical frame of reference and choice of research strategies and methods in a project on research planning. It contains (1) a theoretical model and (2) empirical data concerning the initial phase of the research process. A model, based on principles of general systems theory and a psychology of information, is described and the design of an interview study and its realization is reported. Problems of data processing and data analysis are discussed. A...
Topics: research problems, structuring, perception evaluation, policy, descriptive statistics, general...
This report contains (1) a discussion of general methodological problems in content analyses, (2) a description of the applied content analysis technique, (3) an estimation of the agreement of judges in determining and extracting the basic units of the analysis and (4) an estimation of the coder agreement in coding these units. The coding rules and the preliminary version of the category system are given in appendices.
Topics: verbal data, coder agreement, classification, instructions, coding system
This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,...
Topics: mentality, duality, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), holophors, language space, perspective...
This report describes a Swedish contribution to computer-based content analysis research. The method is compared to international conventions regarding the treatment of text for computer-based analysis. An account is given of how a dictionary can be built up on the basis of the Swedish language. The coding of the text is based on a theory about thought structures and the report describes the way in which this theory can be converted into a system for coding concepts and relations. The system...
Topics: computer-based content analysis, cognitive models, conceptual dependency theory, coding system,...
This report contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, partly as a result of repeated self-confrontation experiences during a confrontation experiment, partly as a result of reassessments six weeks respectively two years after they had participated in the self-confrontation experiment. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlation analyses. Also assessments obtained from pedagogical experts have been used as a...
Topics: re-assessment, self-confrontation, microteaching, CCTV-experiment, videorecording, educational...
The report presents a descriptive study of the educational system in Sweden with special emphasis on the upper level of the comprehensive school. An attempt is made to survey the goals and the realisation of the goals in the practical school situation. Thereby, the focus has been directed upon the attempts being made to adapt the school to the demands of a quickly developing modern society.
Topics: comprehensive school, reform, goals, teaching examples, educational content
This report presents the psycholinguistic model underlying the development of a method for a computer-based content analysis, called ANACONDA. A program-flow diagram for the construction of concepts illustrates basic steps in the Semantic Differential Technique. Some metric properties of the scales applied are discussed. The empirical approach of scaling linguistic elements (adjectives and verbs), which are taken out of context, are described. The results of the scaling procedures are given...
Topics: scaling, Osgood, semantic differentials, regression, panel, similarity analysis
1. A model of analysis is introduced and behavioural science is delimitated using scales of definitions. Various steering factors in science are discussed. Special attention is directed to the steering power of the scientific language 2. The development of school-system and special education are analysed in relation to two traditions of culture: the scientific-mercantile and the humanistic-romantic traditions. Four different periods in the development of special education are distinguished. 3....
Topics: behaviour models, research process, steering, scientific language, cultural traditions, personality...
This monograph contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, who have participated in a self-confrontation experiment. The measurement scale: Assessment and Evaluation Schedule, has been especially devised for this experiment. The report includes a discussion of validity and reliability problems. The self-assessment data have been analysed by means of ANOVA which has been carried out in 3 steps: (1) analysis of the structure of the F-tests, (2)...
Topics: Self-confrontation, teacher, training, experiment, micro-lesson, self-assessment, Anova
Practicable methods for a thorough, reliable and valid analysis of content are fundamental for the behavioural scientist who is working with sets of verbal data. This report presents principles and methodological suggestions of data collections and data analyses. Problems of reliability and validity are discussed in connection with given examples. Methods and techniques for computer-based content analyses are also introduced. Finally some international trends in the methodological development...
Topics: concept, formation, psycho-linguistics, scaling, description, statistics, regression, verbal data
An attempt to modify perception and evaluation of student teachers with the aid of self-confrontation mediated with video recordings on one hand and conventional tutoring on the other is the subject of this report. Background to the experiment, a detailed description of the layout and a presentation of the measuring instruments are given together with evaluation of the internal and external validity of the taken approach. The report provides basic data for the doctoral thesis...
Topics: self-confrontation, teacher training, tutoring, cctv, micro-lessons, video-recording, experimental...
In a number of preceding articles having appeared in this series it has been demonstrated that the AaO paradigm can be used to develop a cognitive helical structure. The present article advances the process to the forth of five phases. Of the four dependent variables emerging at this stage, two will be discussed, namely (1) zero processing and (2) variations in form. The other two will be presented in a forthcoming article. A short introduction gives some of the basics that govern the process....
Topics: AaO paradigm, design, helix, structure, semantics, lexicon, expansion, sphere, illusion, factor,...
This article presents an ecological theory of language and text. It is assumed that the development of language and the production of text are perspective creating activities. A perspective is formed when the material and the immaterial dimension of a text meet. This process can be discovered through a formal mechanism, of which the core component is the Agent. By means of examples from historical times some facts and circumstances are discussed, which support the idea that an Agent, that is,...
Topics: text, geometry, energy, landscapes, fusion, dynamics, flow, Kantian, AaO system, 3D, language,...
The purpose of this report has been to describe in detail eighteen tests of a battery of personality tests, administered in a self-confrontation experiment. The results indicate that in general personality variables, especially those mirroring an interest in one’s self, play a major roll in perception and evaluation of one’s own teaching.
Topics: self-confrontation, experiment, personality tests, multivariate analysis, self-interest
In behavioural science research verbal expressions are analysed with various methods and techniques. However, in order to describe the relations within an entire sentence quantitatively with the aid of multivariate statistical procedures, ANACONDA has been developed. This acronym implies the notion of a method for the Analysis of Concepts by means of Data Processing. A Swedish Semantic Dictionary Base for (570) Adjectives and (880) Verbs is presented here at with the identifier...
Topics: computerized data processing, concept formation, content analysis, cognition, psychometrics,...
This report contains a description of a technique for a computer-based content analysis of interview text. Some steps in the development of a rule system for coding are reported. The evaluation of a preliminary system of rules is described and evaluation data are presented. Furthermore is integrated an extensive control of punching and punch cards for the purpose of attaining a perfect material. The presentation of the work, carried out so far, is pre­ceded by a linguistic discussion.
Topics: computer-based content analysis, coding rules, reliability tests, linguistic models
An experimental study was carried out at the Malmö School of Education in 1969 and 1970 for the purpose of studying the effects on the self-assessment of student teachers of, firstly, externally mediated self-confrontation processes (via closed-circuit television and video-recording), and secondly, dyadic confrontation processes (in the form of traditional tutoring). Detailed reports on the background, design and result of the experiment have been presented in Swedish. The present report gives...
Topics: micro-teaching, closed circuit television, video-recording, teacher training, self-confrontation,...
This report gives a description of the steps in an analysis of the dimensionality in interview texts. By means of cluster analysis techniques the interview materials have been condensed. Based on the results derived from several clusters a discrimination analysis has been carried out. In the final discussion the results are related to (1) the psycholinguistic model and (2) the model of the research process, which have guided this research.
Topics: cluster, probability, group, assignment, discrimination, dendrogram
Content analysis based on frequency distributions differs from impressionistic analysis and interpretations of written or spoken text. This type of analysis is objective insofar as it requires an explicit analysis procedure and a formalised analysis. Objectification means that a person transfers certain typical human functions to objects, i.e., tools, and that machines are developed that can carry out functions that were originally subjective. In this respect the development of a Computer-based...
Topics: regression analysis, scaling, psycho-linguistics, concept formation, panel studies
Based on the typical tasks required in ability testing, a general conclusion drawn in the international research literature is that intelligence is not different from e.g. McClelland's achievement testing. To many psychologists this means that the concept of competence is insignificant and that intelligence as well as related aptitude tests are sufficient in the assessment of performance. Further, it is generally assumed that the intelligence quotient (IQ) constitutes a measure of cognitive...
Topics: behavioural foundation, IQ, assortive mating, filter, unfolding competence, text production,...
This study is examining the mood in which young people express their sensitivity to a literary idea in writing. The context is the 19th Century Naturalism. An earlier reported study could show that persons, when confronted with evolutionary determined literary texts, are either consistent in their way of approaching those tasks during three years or are open to change. The latter strategy has been interpreted as sensitivity to instruction. In the present study, the concept of sensitivity was...
Topics: AaO axiom, text geometry, functional, PTA, textual morphogenesis, string movement, PES,...
In a self-confrontation experiment, student teachers have been put through an extensive test battery containing personality tests, cognitive tests and attitude tests. In this report an analysis is presented of the influence of personality on the student teachers' perception and evaluation during confrontation with their own video-recorded micro-lessons. Using a number of multivariate models for data analysis, prediction problems and relations between the content of different groups of variables...
Topics: teacher training experiment, CCTV, muliple regression, re-assessment, longitudinal, perceptual...
In information rich societies like ours there is a demand for a steadily ongoing discussion and research of the way people in various functions develop and maintain their competence. Competence has become a word of fashion and although everybody thinks that they know what competence is, nobody can tell how it may be measured. The traditional definitions of the word rest on properties, which are equal to knowledge and qualifications. Therefore, when it comes to a measuring procedure,...
Topics: Competence, social concern, measuring learning, public sector, private sector, materials...
This report, based on an interview study, presents the views of forty researchers at departments of education on the scien­tific process. The technique used in this investigation is impressionistic, and the analysis includes: motivation, information search, relationships, influences on project plan, interest spheres, personal situation, program budgeting and practical problems, frame of reference, suggested projects and methodology.
Topics: content analysis, education researchers, search strategies, steering strategies, random sample,...
The report is a bibliographic account concerning television as a technical aid in education and in pedagogical and psychological research. The main stress in this bibliography lies on English and German dissertations from the period 1962-1969. To some extent other published materials in the English language are also included.
Topics: television, technical aid, bibliographic data, subject index, name index
Title in English: “Studies in student teachers’ language use in teaching situations”. Subtitle: “Experiments in analyzing stereotypic expressions by three different measures”. When student teachers by videotape technology have been confronted with their own teaching at two teaching sessions to assess their language use, it has been shown that they have done very well in their estimation of themselves. As the “objective” measure educational experts were used. The differences in...
Topics: language use, verbal performance, experiment, educational experts, panel assessments,...
This report gives an account of some problems, connected with factor analytic data processing. The presentation is of a non-technical kind and concentrated on the description of data processing on several levels. Furthermore, the features of the models of analysis are described, however without an attempt to provide a more systematic and complete presentation. For a more thorough study, the complexity of the subject would require a type of disposition provided in Child, D. (1970). The...
Topics: theoretical constructions, data levels, multiple classifications, samples, error analysis, error...
In this investigation, the influence of self-confrontation on the behaviour while explaining reasoning problems is analysed with the aid of several parameters of verbal behaviour. The behavioural change of persons with the opportunity to come to an understanding of their own behaviour by means of video recordings is compared with the behavioural change of persons without self-confrontation. Moreover, the explanatory behaviour in general and the change of the explanatory behaviour after several...
Topics: self-confrontation, teacher training, kommunication, regression analysis, personality variables,...
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to...
Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
The present article is based on the premise that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce consciousness. Any scientific understanding must necessarily consider the need of an explanation of consciousness. Instead, the non-sense property of traditional scientific modelling appears to hide the phenomenon. In contrast, the explored hypothesis is based on the assumption that the meaningfulness of natural language is the carrier of consciousness. It is assumed that the structural...
Topics: shapes of mind, AaO-axiom, consciousness, non-linear dynamics, awareness, causal loop diagram,...
This report is based on studies of literature and the writerâs own experiences of the use of computer-based information and documentation systems. The report presents principles for the development of an interactive, self-regulating and self-controlling information and documentation system. Based on a system theoretical point of view a model for a realisation of an information and documentation system is outlined. Functional characteristics are discussed. The information searcher is placed in...
Topics: I&D-system, network, education, I&D-functions, self-regulation, self-control
This report presents a system for the simulation of interactive behaviour strategies. The system has been constructed on the basis of a psycho-ecological model. The core of this system is an action-oriented behaviour simulation. The reliability of the information mediating variables, which have been built into the system, has been calculated. These are the association, structure and process paradigms. Furthermore, some explorative results from an adaptive simulation of behaviour are given...
Topics: behaviour simulation, system analysis, event, action, mediating variables
In a research project on search and steering strategies in educational and psychological research planning, interviews with researchers working in departments of educational and psychological research are being analysed. The present report deals with the first step in developing a computer-based content analysis control of inter-coder agreement in syntactic-concept based coding of interview materials. The report discusses the actual inter-coder agreement and pro­poses directions for further...
Topics: content analysis, reliability testing, coder agreement, interview data
Within a research project on computer-based content analysis empirically specified content of nouns is assumed to come about through weighted verbs and adjectives connected with the nouns. Based on this assumption noun clusters have been established. This study tries to find out a method for measuring the function of adverbs within the adjectival structure. It is namely possible that the weight of the respective adjectives could change in connection with modifiers in such a degree that the...
Topics: psycholinguistics, psychometrics, cluster analysis, modifiers, content analysis
The purpose of the discussion in this article is to give an evolutionary background to a method developed for the analysis of language seen as expression of intention and morality. The method is named “Perspective Text Analysis”. This name indicates that beyond the physical dimension of a text there is a metaphysical one, which can be discovered by a formal mechanism. The cue component of this mechanism is the Agent, which controls the perspective of the text. It has developed as a...
Topics: language evolution, AaO-axiom, consciousness, language model, perspective control, Kantian schema,...
This report presents a comprehensive description of the computing methods used for testing ANACONDA (Analysis of Concepts by Data processing). Of special importance is the program developed for identification of words in the text with words in the dictionary. In the form of an appendix some background information to the ANACONDA method is given.
Topics: computer language, program development, word identification, matching procedure
Stimulated by the general philosophical idea oflogical positivism Edgar A. Singer, early in the 1920s made the radical suggestion that behaviour does not have mentalcauses. His thesis, further developed and modified by Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener and Julian Bigelow in the early 1940s, has come to be termed behaviouralteleology. The principal motivation for Gerd Sommerhoff was in the beginnings of the 1950s to disjoin the behavioural approach from all notions of mind, mental statesand...
Topics: competence, Targeted system analysis, goal-directed behaviour, visible social texture, association,...
Three approaches towards theory building in the behavioural science are described. It is pointed out that model construction requires general theoretical concepts, which are well defined. The presentation aims to clarify what is meant by the (1) association, (2) structure, and (3) process model. The models have been the starting point for the development of a simulator of interactive behaviour (SIR).
Topics: behavioural science models, principles, clarification, concepts
The report describes the development of an interactive be­haviour simulator, anchored in theories of behavioural science. It is based on an interaction between teacher be­haviours and video-recorded pupil reactions. After presen­tation of a number of investigations concerning simulation in teacher training, a short description is given of the de­velopment of a simulator (SIR). This version has been tested on a small number of student teachers. The results of the tests and reactions to...
Topics: self-confronation, interactive behaviour, simulation, behaviour theories, real-time imaging
This report describes the method of approach used in an analysis of the dimensionality of interview texts. By means of cluster analysis models, the interview materials have been agglomerated. On the basis of these results the relation pattern has then been studied by means of a discriminant analysis. In the final discussion the results are related to (1) the psycholinguistic model and (2) the model of the research process, which have guided this research.
Topics: content analysis, scaling, cluster, discriminant analysis, semantic differentials
The present chapter is written mainly as a tutorial for those researchers who try to get out something essential from peoplesâ way of reasoning and behaving and who suppose that this is expressed in their spoken and written language. Fundamental to the method presented here is that it gives a synthesis of the perspective that a text producer gives to a text in the moment of its evolvement. Since a perspective cannot be developed within single clauses and sentences but in the co-operation...
Topics: text concept, agent function, text depth, perspective borders, graphical sentence, functional...
This technical report from the I&D project summarizes studies made on a 40 years production by a sample of educational researchers in Sweden. The problem dealt with concerns quantitative distributions of the languages in which the works are written and the results of a program for automatic language separation. The separating capacity of various languages is compared with respect to bibliographic data of a scientific work. Word frequencies are discussed as to content and structure and some...
Topics: computational linguistics, computerbased lexicology, scientific information, language separation,...
In modern information and documentation systems, the thesaurus has the important function of serving as a link between the author of a document and the information searcher. For this reason, the language structure of thesauri should receive more attention than has been the case so far. In this study, the intermediate function of the thesaurus has led to an investiga­tion of the principles for structuring and representing informa­tion in such a way that it corresponds to the cognitive...
Topics: algorithmic coding, computational linguistics, concept recognition, empirical database, information...
The report presents a descriptive study of the educational system in Sweden with special emphasis on the upper level of the comprehensive school. An attempt is made to survey the goals and the realisation of the goals in the practical school situation. Thereby, the focus has been directed upon the attempts being made to adapt the school to the demands of a quickly developing modern society.
Topics: school reform, descriptive study, comprehensive school, Sweden, comparative eduction, curriculum,...
This article presents in compressed form the development of a psycho-ecological model for simulation of interpersonal relations (SIR). SIR is a method and an instrument, which permits a simulation of strat­egiesof interactive behaviour. From a behavioural science point of view the method should make it possibleto map mechanisms that produce and reproduce behaviour. SIR may also be used as an aid in studying how the individual's perceptionand evaluation steer and control behavioural...
Topics: behaviour theories, markov chains, closed circuit television, videorecording, event simulation,...
Within many areas and at various levels people are discussing the problem of information and information overflow, at the same time as the need of information is greater than ever before. This report presents the basis for developing a locally anchored I&D-system within a research organisation. Since the basic concept in information processing is "data", the processes or "events" governing the data flow within a research institute are discussed. It is also outlined in...
Topics: I&D-system, local communication, psycho-ecology, scientific information retrieval
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
Scientific communication presumes a well functioning information and documentation system. Information retrieval systems have been designed for making possible rapid and precise answers to inquiries. This report includes (1) a short survey of international and national documentation activities, (2) a description of rules and criteria to be used and the way these can be applied in an information retrieval system, and (3) some empirical results, identifying the needs for information and the uses...
Topics: information needs, information uses, computer-based literature search, retrieval systems
The classroom behaviour of student teachers has been recorded on videotape. Educational experts have assessed these videotaped materials. This report contains a description and the conclusions reached. The assessment is analysed and discussed at the item level and at the level of the six subject-object categories constituting the Assessment and Evaluation Schedule. The observations have been analysed by means of ANOVA which has been carried out in three steps: (1) analysis of the structure of...
Topics: CCTV, experiment, educational expert, assessment, Anova, precision, effect size
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk, Inger Bierschenk, & Agneta Sternerup-Hansson,
A user-oriented coding of knowledge, which is disseminated through titles to scientific work requires information systems,which build on cognitive models. A computer program with comments to conceptual coding of titles is presented in this report. The cognitive model, which has governed the program development, is described briefly. The functioning of the program is illustrated with some computer outputs from a data base, which is representative of Swedish educational research. 
Topics: computer linguistics, program development, pattern generation, register, information, intermediate,...
In modern information and documentation systems, the thesaurus has the important function of serving as a link between the author of a document and the information searcher. For this reason, the language structure of thesauri should receive more attention than has been the case so far. In this study, the intermediate function of the thesaurus has led to an investiga­tion of the principles for structuring and representing informa­tion in such a way that it corresponds to the cognitive...
Topics: algorithmic coding, computational linguistics, concept recognition, empirical database, information...
This report is an initial description and analysis of developmental trends in educational research in Sweden since 1937. The analysis is based on an attempt to give a quantitative description of accessible knowledge. The starting point is a strictly random generated sample of researchers in this field. The analysis indicates that the flow of knowledge mainly depends on a very small but highly active group of researchers.
Topics: knowledge, development, quantitative, longitudinal, empirical, I&D, psychology, bibliometrics,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
The present report is about the fourth experiment in a series of five. This series concerns a longitudinal study of changing shapes of mind. Based on the assumption that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce natural language expressions, mental development is discoverable through the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) mechanisms. The present study is focussing on the way in which the evolutionnary process of text production portrays the system of thought that holds that human...
Topics: PTA, AaO model, non-linear, language mechanics, learning strategy, competence, consciousness,...
Because computer-oriented researchers apply cognitive notions such as meaning, symbol and understanding, or concept, cognition and knowledge, it has become mandatory to inquire into the traditional explanatory models of science, including behaviourism. The article outlines the steering and control mechanism that has governed a new outlook in which subjective mental states become functionally interactive and essential for a full explanation of conscious behaviour. The presented model has...
Topics: phase relations, design structure, axiomatic basis, recurrent factorial design
Since the 1960's there has been increasing understanding and cooperation between the religious and the political spheres in Sweden, notably between the Church of Sweden and the Social-democratic Party. Both have been occupied with issues outside their traditional national and confessional boundaries. The question is whether and to what extent this has resulted in a “civil religion of the Swedish society” which unites the Church and secular politics in their striving for justice and peace in...
Topics: cognition, AaO system, religion, politics, ideology, strategy
The dictionary base is representing Swedish adjectives and verbs which were assessed of a sample of 40 randomly selected individuals, drawn from a population of 132 researchers, working in the fields of educational and psychological research. Further, the presented source materials are based on a sample of 600 pages of running text drawn from the 4000 pages of the collected interviews. This base provides a new way of building up concepts and conceptual relations. Finally, all units were scaled...
Topics: Multidimensional scaling, Osgood, psychometrics, content analysis
This report contains a summarised description of the experimental design, results and implications of separately published analyses. The aim of the investigation has been to study the effects of traditional tutoring and self-confrontation via closed circuit television and video-recording on student teachers' self-assessment. In addition, the report contains recommendations for further research and for further analyses of data already collected.
Topics: teacher training, micro-lessons, CCTV, videotape, experiment
This report includes a presentation of basic theoretical and methodological assumptions for investigating the relationship between competence and qualifications by means of simulation tasks. An analysis of the types of tasks that have been used in the study of problem solving psychology serves as a background for an exposition of the relationship between competence and qualifications. The vehicle for investigating competence and qualification is the INTOPIA program, which involves a task that...
Topics: problem, solving, competence, intopia, program, pilot, study, behaviour model
The report is a bibliographical account of German literature on television as a technical aid in education and in pedagogical and psychological research. The bibliography covers publications produced between 1960 and 1970.
Topics: television, technical aid, bibliographic data, subject index, name index
On the basis of the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) paradigm, it will be shown how the transformation of a word model to a geometric space description can be made the foundation for an approach to informational invariants. In particular, the word model of a Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) has been used for simplifying the involved procedures. Since the explanation of a causal loop requires a verbal description of what is in the links, this kind of discourse is necessarily dependent on its producerâs...
Topics: AaO paradigm, perspective, text, analysis, PTA, Vertex, causal loop, diagram, CLD, word model,...
This article is a presentation of a new method for analysing texts: Perspective Text Analysis. The text is used to illustrate this method and also the results of it I have produced myself. The advantages of the Perspective Text Analysis are discussed in comparison with more traditional methods for content analysis. One of these advantages is the ability of the presented method to specify the objects connected to each agent through an action in text. Through cluster analysis this method can show...
Topics: AaO system, agent perspective, religion, discourse
A main line of thought in modernistic prose concerns the efforts of transforming scientific concepts into literary forms. This paper presents a study, which formulates the hypothesis that, despite these efforts, a clear distinction should be found between the theory and mind of an author and his text producing practice. A text sample from a well-known American Nobel Prize holder has been studied by means of Perspective Text Analysis, by which the space of a text can be established and measured....
Topics: AaO system, novel, writer, mental, functionalism, behaviourism, Hemingway
This report contains analyses of the results of student teachers' self-assessment and the assessment by pedagogical experts on videotaped protocol material. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlations. Further, the ANOVA has been carried out in three steps: Analysis of (1) structure of the F-tests, (2) precision and power and (3) post hoc analyses. Canonical correlations have been analysed with regard to (1) significant bi-variate relations, (2) the relations...
Topics: CCTV-experiment, assessments, educational experts, self-confrontation, contrast analysis, Anova,...
The present study concerns the way in which its participants have picked up and cognitively integrated information on various models of possible societal development. The study draws attention to a perceiverâs potential of co-ordinating his views of the consequences of behaviour with behavioural control. Accordingly, the participants have been asked to prospect the consequences possible in a given environment and report their judgements in two different ways. One concerns the measurement of...
Topics: perceptual sensitivity, cultural values, eigenvalue, excellence, frozen condition, subordination,...
The report is divided into five subparts: Part 1 gives a general presentation of the training and research organisation of the School of Education and its functions and relations in the educational system of Sweden. Part 2 gives a description of the organisation and goals of the several training sections at the School of Education and of the training schools connected with the School of Education. Part 3 contains a survey of the organisation, function and research activities of the Department...
Topics: Sweden, teacher, education, research, profile, training, school, timetable, study
This seminar paper contains a short principled discussion of the use of prepositions in the interaction of language with information science models. The point of departure is the problems of ambiguity identified in various computer-based approaches to the specification of information. The paper ends up in a proposal for ecological thinking in text analyses where the concept of action range should have the cue function. Examples are taken from the context of the Visual Cliff experiments. The...
Topics: preposition, cognition, element, information, organization, language, ecology
To enable the examination and evaluation of the quality of scientific publications and research funding, researchers should rely heavily on the principles of behavioural research for conducting and reporting empirical studies. In this report both general rules and suggested conventions have been compiled, i.e. (1) general principles for designing and evaluating behavioural research, (2) suggestions for principles to guide the researcher in preparing scientific reports for publication, and (3)...
Topics: research, behavioural, reporting, guide, preparation, design, control, criteria, writing, convention
The report presents a research program, the purpose of which is to study (1) the development of the individual's self-cognition and competence in handling interpersonal relations, (2) the individual's sensitivity in observing the course of an event and ability to develop flexible strategies of behaviour in interactions with others. A model for the simulation of interactive behaviour is outlined. The model is based on three behavioural principles and has guided the preliminary construction of a...
Topics: behaviour simulation, model development, interaction strategies, test results
The problem investigated in this study was formulated against the background of the theory of affordances as it was tested with the famous âVisual Cliffâ experiment. The present study is based on the assumption that the perceiver can detect transformational as well as structural invariants not only in the context of the classical âVisual Cliffâ experiments but also when their basic assumptions are transformed into the social realm. On the hypothesis that structural invariants can be defined...
Topics: ecological perception, optical texture, narratives, principal component, varimax rotation,...
New types of information- and documentation systems are developed in most countries of the world. Several types of information have been available, but in spite of highly advanced techniques, no programs are yet handling multi-lingual information. This report presents a program, which separates titles of research documents automatically. The search program is based on the matching of specific cues in six languages, which coincide with patterns in the titles. It is shown that the English...
Topics: computational linguistics, computerbased lexicology, scientific information, language separation,...
The production of string rotation and pattern dynamics through the generation of text must build on the presence of a reversible rotary motor which has a synthesizing capacity. This is the discovered AaO-mechanism, which has the power to capture synthesis through emerging AaO-rings. Further, the transcription through the Functional Clause (FC) provides the foundation for their differentiation and decides on the trend in the governing messengers. A precisely definable number of messengers is...
Topics: AaO axiom, functional, text geometry, flow field, spinning dot, operating messenger, graphical...
The article presents an analysis in which intentionality is the key concept in the measurement and representation of consciousness. It is shown that a psychological approach based on the animal mechanism out of which behavioural semantics has developed is wrong. By studying the local and global singularities it was possible to show that efficient transaction with the environment rests on the theoretical formulations that assume the cooperative interaction of a conscious organism with the...
Topics: collectivity, consciousness, narratives, topological representation, cubic space
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk, Helge Helmersson, & Bengt Lohmander
Traditionally, respecting peopleâs choice is considered equal with respecting people. Founded on the premise of choice, elaborated and hierarchically organized organisations have been built up to guarantee growth of living standard for securing quality of life. This article reports on a study, which questions the adequacy of this premise. Three models of feasible societies have been used to study the way in which people prefer one or the other with respect to how uncertain or certain they are...
Topics: Swedish model, projected societies, Latin-square, canonical discriminant analysis, discriminant...
This is the second article on the competence theme, which aims at demonstrating the consequences of a new educational paradigm, namely materials-directedness. By this is meant the conceptual control of the built-in disparity of educational materials. By means of a new method for structural analysis (in a biological sense), it is shown how conceptual relations and dimensions of a literary text are laid bare. The demonstration text, which is a description of the idea of behaviourism, is analysed...
Topics: structure, educational materials, behaviourism, concepts